#000000; color: #80c0c0">
#000080; font: 36pt/40pt courier;
font-variant: small-caps; border:
thick dashed blue">Welcome to my home page!</h1>
25px">Hi there! If you are reading this then you have found my home page!
I know it can be hard to find my pages, but I
bet that you feel lucky now. Now that you are here, please take a look at my page
of links to <aHREF="http://www.mysite.com/coolsites.html">cool
sites</a> or sign my
Buy Navel Lint Contemplator! Its a browser and
its a sandwich spread! Go to our <aHREF="http://www.navellint.com">home
page</a> without delay! Why? Because shelf
life is only 8 hours unless refrigerated. We know that makes it hard to browse,
but it promotes frequent upgrading to the latest and greatest version.
<h6STYLE="font-size: xx-small ! important; color:
red ! important">All standard disclaimers apply. Your life depends on NOT
copying this document in any way. This tape will
destruct</a> in 10
Line: General CSS Issues:In-line Styles Description: Note that this example seems more
cluttered than the External and Embedded CSS examples. This is because
the style information is mixed in with the document content. Even with this
rather small quantity of style rules, the size of the resulting document is
larger than either the External or Embedded CSS examples. This method
can be useful if a small number of styles are applied to individual elements,
but it quickly becomes unwieldy (as seen here) when style rules are applied
to multiple elements. The lack of classes to address multiple selectors is a
big liability to this method.
Line:5 CSS Issues:Pseudo-classes Description: We are using the HTML BODY attributes
to control hyperlink behavior. The lack of anchor pseudo-classes makes this
necessary. The BGCOLOR and TEXT attributes for the BODY element could be used here
as well, but we are trying to use in-line styles in as many situations here as
possible, so just ignore that point. =)
Line:6 CSS Issues:Multiple
Selectors, Multiple Declaration Shorthands Description: The style attribute here sets many
properties for the H1 element. Much of this style information is also used on the
SPAN element in line 31. In using the in-line method we lose the advantage of
selector grouping that classes offer.
Line:8 CSS Issues:Pseudo-elements Description: We are using the SPAN element within
the P element to simulate a 'first-line' pseudo-element used in the
document-level and external style sheet examples. In-line styles do not
allow for the possibility of attaching styles to virtual pseudo-elements, so the effect
must be simulated with a real element. Note that the hack in this example is crude,
and can not be counted on to always produce a true 'first-line' effect that is
created by the virtual pseudo-element structure.
Line:10 CSS Issues:Pseudo-elements Description: Here we have nested DIV elements. The
innermost DIV element pair is used as in the previous line to achieve a
pseudo-element effect (a 'first-line'.) The first line is quite easily
determined in this case by the early placement of the BR tag to end the first
line. The end of the 'first-line' is not as easily determined in the previous
line because the original line as designed would flow to well over one line
under most browser resolutions and screen sizes. Remember that line breaking
decisions for an end user can not be pre-determined - if you keep this in mind
you will be far less perturbed by the inevitable variations that occur from
browser to browser.
29 CSS Issues:Pseudo-elements Description: Another little hack is used in these
instances in the absence of the ability to use the 'first-letter' pseudo-element.
Since we can easily determine what constitutes the first letter in these and
most cases, we can assign a SPAN with the desired style information to our
intended 'first-letter'. Given the choice, it seems preferable to use the
pseudo-element when possible, as it does not use extra elements/markup.
Line:12 CSS Issues:Multiple Selectors Description: The External and Embedded CSS
examples use a separate rule to set the background information for several elements.
Since that can not be done here, it must be specified again and again for
each element instance. This has the effect of creating duplicate style statements
as well as some very busy HTML elements.
Line:13 CSS Issues:Contextual
Selectors, In-line Styles Description: A special style is given to the EM element.
In other CSS examples this is accomplished by contextual selectors (which can
not be used in the case of in-line styles.) Because there is only one instance
of this element nesting situation in these examples, neither method has any drawbacks.
18 / 22 / 26 CSS Issues:Multiple
Selectors, Special Properties Description: We are setting several properties
on multiple HTML elements here. Now we begin to see the great power in the
brevity of HTML class structures. We have to repeat our style information
not just twice, but FOUR times in order to cover all occurrences. Clearly
this leads to increases in file size and is a detriment to download time.
Line:21 CSS Issues:Inheritance Description: Special properties are assigned to
this particular item in the list. The nested SPAN element will inherit the
FONT-SIZE and FONT-STYLE properties assigned to this LI.
26 / 27 / 28 /
31 CSS Issues:Inheritance Description: These are just normal, mundane
inline CSS statements applied to BLOCKQUOTE, DIV, P with SPAN elements nested
inside them. The SPAN elements will inherit the property values assigned to the
parent elements unless those properties are also specified for the SPANs as well.
Line:30 CSS Issues:Shorthand
Properties Description: Uses shorthand properties on the
P element. Using 4 shorthands in this case accomplishes same work using an
abbreviated syntax as 15 of the regular individual properties. When using
in-line styles, we need to conserve all the space we can.
Line:33 CSS Issues:Inheritance,
Cascading Rules Description: This use of '!important' on style
assignments is unique here in this document. It will indicate to the browser
that the rule must be used in preference to a normal rule set for this element
situation specified using another method (using a reader's own style sheet
for example.) This is a good way to guarantee that a crucial style element
in your page survives the uncertainty of a Cascading Order calculation.
This control should not be abused however, as it reduces the control the
reader has over their browsing environment (a reader may have, for instance,
valid physical reasons for their viewing environment settings.)
Line:34 CSS Issues:Pseudo-classes Description: In other examples we use a
pseudo-class to assign styles to a particular state of this individual
anchor. Because state-dependent style assignments are only possible through
External or Embedded style sheets, we can do nothing to the element in this case.